The black sedan glided as much as the Las Vegas lodge the place Elizabeth Suarez was ready to take an Uber residence after an evening of playing. She recalled asking the motive force: Are you ready for Liz? Yeah, he responded. Get in.

She had accomplished it numerous occasions. However that evening in July 2018, as the person veered off target towards a abandoned parking zone, as he cranked up the radio and ignored her questions, as her actual driver referred to as her questioning the place she was, Ms. Suarez stated she realized with horror: This was not an Uber.

“That’s when he stated, ‘Give me your pockets, give me your cellphone, give me every part you’ve gotten,’” Ms. Suarez, 28, stated.

On busy streets outdoors bars or golf equipment, folks typically hop right into a automotive with out a second thought. However the killing of Samantha Josephson, a 21-year-old faculty scholar in South Carolina who was stabbed to loss of life after getting right into a automotive she mistook for her Uber final weekend, has introduced nationwide consideration to a rash of kidnappings, sexual assaults and robberies carried out largely in opposition to younger girls by assailants posing as ride-share drivers.

There have been at the least two dozen such assaults previously few years, in response to a tally of publicly reported instances, together with cases the place suspects have been charged with attacking a number of girls. In Connecticut, a person was arraigned final week on costs that he kidnapped and raped two girls who believed he was their ride-share driver. In Chicago, prosecutors stated a person who posed as an Uber driver sexually assaulted 5 girls, climbing into the again seat and pinning them down.

These assaults flip a easy mix-up right into a nightmare, displaying how simply unhealthy actors can exploit the vulnerabilities of a ride-sharing tradition that so many individuals belief to get them residence protected.

[Ideas for staying protected when getting right into a ride-share automobile.]

The drivers troll nightclubs and bars late at evening to seek out folks scanning the darkish for his or her experience, in response to regulation enforcement descriptions of the assaults. They wave to passengers and say, “I’m your driver.” Some even dangle ride-share decals of their home windows.

The assaults characterize a tiny fraction of the hundreds of thousands of uneventful rides that Individuals hail day-after-day. However Ms. Josephson’s homicide has compelled ride-sharing corporations to handle renewed security issues, led to legislative proposals and public efforts to scale back future assaults, and prompted passengers throughout the nation to weigh the dangers of climbing right into a stranger’s again seat.

“It might be any certainly one of us,” stated Kate Lewis, a junior on the College of South Carolina, the place Ms. Josephson had been a senior about to go to regulation college.

[Have you ever had a scary expertise with what you thought was a ride-share driver? Please share your experiences within the feedback.]

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Samantha Josephson.Credit scoreColumbia Police Division, by way of Related Press

State lawmakers in South Carolina have proposed a regulation named for Ms. Josephson that might require all ride-share drivers to show a lighted signal from their firm. Her father, Seymour Josephson, has turn out to be an outspoken advocate for stronger security measures, saying at a vigil this week, “I don’t need anybody else to undergo it as a guardian.”

On the College of South Carolina, college students have began a brand new security marketing campaign that urges riders to ask, “What’s my title?” to make sure they’re speaking to their precise ride-share drivers earlier than getting right into a automotive.

College students described the marketing campaign as one constructive motion they might take amid per week of shocked grief and candlelit vigils, after the police introduced on Saturday that that they had discovered Ms. Josephson’s physique within the woods 70 miles away. She had final been seen at 2 a.m. Friday in a busy downtown neighborhood in Columbia, S.C., getting right into a black Chevrolet Impala.

The safety footage of these moments is haunting: As Ms. Josephson will get into the again seat, there are folks in every single place, tapping on their telephones, hugging each other’s shoulders, having fun with the evening.

The police charged Nathaniel David Rowland, 24, with kidnapping and killing Ms. Josephson. They stated that they had discovered Ms. Josephson’s blood and her cellphone in Mr. Rowland’s automotive, together with bleach and cleansing provides. The kid-safety locks had been engaged.

Mr. Rowland has not entered a plea, and his lawyer declined to remark. He was not an Uber driver, the corporate stated.

“Everybody at Uber is devastated to listen to about this unspeakable crime,” Grant Klinzman, an organization spokesman, stated in an e-mail. “We spoke with the College of South Carolina president and will probably be partnering with the college to lift consciousness on faculty campuses nationwide about this extremely vital problem.”

Uber despatched a message to its customers on Thursday advising them to match the license plate, automotive make and mannequin and to test the motive force’s earlier than taking a experience.

Within the wake of stories of Ms. Josephson’s loss of life, Carla Westlund, 30, thought as soon as once more concerning the evening in 2017 when she was raped in Los Angeles by a person she mistakenly thought was her Uber driver. She stated she fell asleep within the again seat of the automotive and woke to him beating her head in opposition to the seat.

“He had an Uber sticker,” she stated. “He was pretending to be an Uber driver.”

After three hours in his automotive, Ms. Westlund stated she was capable of persuade the person to let her go outdoors her boyfriend’s home, and she or he instantly reported the assault and went to the hospital. Ms. Westlund stated she felt re-victimized by reporting the crime — a typical criticism from sexual-assault survivors. She stated that she had given extra particulars of the assault as she remembered extra with every retelling, however that the officers had characterised this as altering her story.

“I felt like I used to be undoubtedly being handled like I did one thing mistaken,” she stated. She now volunteers with PAVE, a nonprofit that works to finish sexual violence.

In February 2018, Nicolas Morales was arrested and charged with raping her and 6 different girls by posing as a ride-share driver. He pleaded not responsible and has a preliminary listening to scheduled for April eight.

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The police charged Nathaniel David Rowland, 24, with kidnapping and killing Ms. Josephson.Credit scoreColumbia Police Division, by way of Agence France-Presse — Getty Pictures

Uber and Lyft have been criticized previously for not adequately vetting their drivers or doing sufficient to make sure passenger security, which has led to momentary bans or restrictions on the providers in some cities. A 2018 CNN report discovered that 103 Uber drivers and 18 Lyft drivers had been accused of sexual assault or abuse. The businesses conduct background checks and say passenger security is their high precedence.

Uber stated it has labored with regulation enforcement since 2017 to show riders methods to keep away from impostors. It urges folks to double-check their experience’s license plate, make and mannequin and confirm the motive force’s id. Final yr, it added a panic button that lets riders faucet their screens and dial 911 straight from the app.

Uber and Lyft additionally distribute glowing dashboard lights in some markets referred to as the Beacon and Amp that change shade to match a hue on a passenger’s app. The lights are in restricted distribution and never out there to all drivers.

Harry Campbell, a driver for Uber and Lyft who hosts a podcast referred to as The Rideshare Man, stated it was widespread for folks to hop into the mistaken automotive within the crush outdoors bars, airports, video games or live shows, the place lots of of individuals are jostling for his or her automobiles.

“These kinds of errors are taking place on a regular basis,” Mr. Campbell stated. “However there are some unhealthy actors who notice this and take benefit.”

It’s not onerous to pretend, security consultants and regulation enforcement authorities stated.

Knockoff decals and light-up indicators saying “Uber” and “Lyft” are simple to purchase from main on-line retailers. Impostors trawl evening spots when folks have typically been ingesting and are notably susceptible, as they half with associates for the night and search the darkish for an unfamiliar automotive.

“They’re profiting from a person who’s intoxicated and doesn’t have all their senses. They’re going to miss little warning indicators,” stated Lt. Harrison Daniel of the Athens-Clarke County Police in Georgia, the place a person was charged with posing as an Uber driver and raping a university scholar final yr.

Figuring out the attackers may also be tough. In contrast to precise ride-share drivers, they don’t register their private particulars in a ride-hailing service’s database, so police have to drag safety footage, search for witnesses and search the streets for automobiles matching a suspect’s automobile.

The driving force who kidnapped and robbed Ms. Suarez in an empty parking zone behind a grocery retailer early that morning in July 2018 nonetheless has not been arrested, although police stated the investigation was lively.

Ms. Suarez escaped by leaping out of his shifting automotive. She cracked her cranium and broke her wrist and ankle. When she reported the assault, she stated the police had appeared leery of her story and requested her about how she was dressed and what she had been doing out at four a.m.

She determined to talk out concerning the assault, posting images of her accidents on social media and speaking to an area tv station. Some folks responded by saying she was “crying wolf” and was accountable for entering into the mistaken automotive.

Ms. Suarez stated she believed that the person who attacked her was not there by coincidence that evening.

“He was ready for the proper particular person,” she stated. “He knew precisely what time to be on the market. I believe he’d accomplished it previously, and he’ll proceed to do it. As a result of he’s nonetheless on the market.”

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